Sunday, March 26, 2017

An Introduction to TypeScript

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Initially, JavaScript language was introduced for the client side programming, later with the Node.js progress it started to become an emerging server-side programming language too. As you might know when you start developing an application with JavaScript and as its code starts to grow, at some points it gets complex and difficult to maintain.

Since JavaScript does not support the features like strong type checking, concepts of object-oriented programming and compile time error checks which make it a difficult language to code with. Also, these problems limit JavaScript usage for enterprise level applications development. TypeScript is developed to overcome these issues and make a reliable and better experience of coding with JavaScript. TypeScript is a promising change and will likely to make JavaScript much famous.

What is TypeScript?


Definition of TypeScript on its official site.

As stated in the definition of the official site, the TypeScript is strongly typed superset of JavaScript that generates the JavaScript, which means that TypeScript is JavaScript moreover it has some additional helpful features. TypeScript is a transpiler which generates the plain JavaScript, so at any point, if you are not comfortable with TypeScript syntax, you can start writing a JavaScript syntax code & it will work perfectly with TypeScript code.

TypeScript helps to code in structural programming style, using classes, interfaces, strong typing, modules and also it easily integrates with other popular JavaScript libraries. TypeScript is kind of wrapper on JavaScript that has extra features to help the developer.

TypeScript is developed by Microsoft and also it has been used to develop the Angular 2, which is also the reason that TypeScript gained so much attention recently. Having the support of two big tech communities means that there is a lot more to come in future and surely it is going to be a more stable tool.

Why TypeScript?


TypeScript is just a superset of JavaScript, it does not have any effect on the final output. So it is completely on you to use TypeScript or not. The reasons to use TypeScript is its great tools which help in larger projects where your code-base is larger, TypeScript helps to manage the code base.

Development Friendly Tools


As discussed earlier, with larger size projects JavaScript code gets messier and difficult to manage and if the code is not properly structured it gets nightmare to work on. Once project size gets bigger making refactoring or any kind of changes to existing code is very scary or kind of next to impossible task. TypeScript has some great tools to manage the larger code base, like navigation, IntelliSense, and easy refactoring. These are the tools that required for a large project.

With these great tools, any changes or refactoring in existing codes is less risky and time savings. The extensions like Resharper helps in utilizing these tools very effectively.

Object Oriented Programming flavor


With TypeScript you can achieve object oriented flavor in JavaScript, it allows you to create an interface, classes, implement inheritance. These are the concepts any developer having experience in OOP language can understand. Let's take an example that you are working on an application in which you have an object of User with different roles (i.e, Admin, EndUser etc), which has some basic user properties. Now if you are working on plain JS, you cannot restrict the definition of User object i.e, its properties and functions. That is the reason you might have different versions of the User object in different methods.

While using TypeScript you can define an interface for User objects and all roles will implement this interface so that we can make sure that object contains the required mandatory properties.
interface IUser {
   id: int; 
   firstName: string;
   LastName: string;
   email: string;
   //...
} 

class SuperAdmin implements IUser {
//other custom properties
} 
class EndUser implements IUser {
//other custom properties
} 

An important point here is that TypeScript gives these flavors of Object Oriented programming but not force it and as already discussed any valid js code is valid TypeScript code so a developer might start developing on concrete objects instead of these abstract implementation without any warning.

Readable and Easy to understandable Code


TypeScript adds details to the signature of function which makes it easy to understand. Let's take an example of jQuery ajax function, how descriptive it is?
jQuery.ajax(url, settings);
What information you can get from this line of code? It is a function which takes two arguments, what are those two arguments types? Is URL an object? what are settings object contains? its declaration has not clear information. To find the answers to above concerns you will require to see its source code or the jQuery documentation which is the overhead.
Let see the strong type declaration of the same function:

ajax(url: string, settings?: AjaxSettings): XHRObject;

interface AjaxSettings{
  cache?: boolean;
  async?: boolean;
  contentType?: any;
  headers?: {
     [key: string]: any;
  };
  //...
}

interface XHRObject {
  responseJSON?: any;
  //...
}
Let see what this function is telling us, it says ajax is a function which can take two arguments, URL which is a string and AjaxSettings is an optional argument, which is an interface and can only contain the properties of specific type, allowed by the interface definition also declaration tells us that this function will return XHRObject.

Migrating Existing Code


If you have existing written code you can easily migrate your js code to TypeScript code without much effort. Since TypeScript is just a superset of JavaScript and any valid JS code is a valid TypeScript code. So you can convert any existing .js file to .ts (TypeScript file extension). After switching file extension you can start changing dynamic types of your code to strongly typed. Once your are done with one module you can pick next module and your code is any time ready and functional whether its completely migrated to TypeScript or not.

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Sunday, February 7, 2016

Design Patterns : Facade Pattern

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Facade design pattern is a structural design pattern. Word facade means 'a deceptive outward appearance'. As facade design pattern hides all the complexities of one or many sub-systems and provides a clean, easy to use facade interface.

We can create multiple Facade interfaces by grouping relevant sub-system in particular class. The client will communicate these facades instead of complex individual subsystems.

Facade Design Pattern - Class Diagram

Implementation

Let's implement a facade pattern on an e-commerce site. We are going to create an online shopping system in which user selects an item from a catalog and place an order. Let's see its code

public class Inventory 
{
    public bool IsItemAvailable(String itemId) 
    {
       return "Item details";
    }
}

public class Payment 
{
    public String Pay(String itemId,Paypal paypal)
    {
       return "Charge for items";
    }
}

public class Shipping 
{
    public String ShipOrder(String itemId,Address shipmentAddress) 
    {
       return "Ship items to address";
    }
}

public class OrderFacade 
{
    // composed of all Order related sub-systems
    Payment _Payment;
    Inventory _Inventory;
    Inventory _Shipping;

    public void OrderFacade()
    {
        _Payment = new Payment();
        _Inventory = new Inventory();
        _Shipping = new Shipping();
    }

    public void PlaceOrder(String itemId,string creditCard,string shipmentAddress) 
    {
      // check if item is available 
      if(!_Inventory.IsItemAvailable(itemId)) return "Item Not Available";
      // charge for item price
      _Payment.Pay(itemId, new Paypal(creditCard));
      // ship order to customer
      _Shipping.ShipOrder(itemId,shipmentAddress) 
    }
}

public class Client 
{
    public static void main()
    {
       OrderFacade orderFacade = new OrderFacade();
       orderFacade.PlaceOrder("1234", "321546", "23-B Frim Road, Moscow");         
    }
}


As you have seen OrderFacade has encapsulated all the order-related activities and now client just has single point to communicate instead of invoking each sub-system individually. OrderFacade will delegate relevant sub-system and will complete the client request.

Facade pattern provides an interface which is easy to use for a client by hiding many interfaces. This pattern is actually straightforward but it is quite powerful. It allows us to make our system loosely coupled. There is a design principle Least Knowledge which guide us to have fewer dependencies between objects which mean objects should not be tightly coupled otherwise it would be difficult to manage.

Using Facade pattern as we know we have an interface which is responsible for communicating between the objects so it actually allows us to have fewer dependencies within objects. It has many advantages for instance in our example of online shopping system if our payment system is completely independent we can easily change it anytime without affecting the client.

Conclusion


Facade design pattern is a structural pattern which makes design easy by allowing to make a system less tightly coupled and provide an interface to the client which is clean and easy to use by hiding all complexities of sub-systems.


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Friday, February 5, 2016

Design Patterns : Adapter Pattern - Be Adaptive

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Adapter pattern works as a bridge between two separate objects. It converts interface of a class into another interface which is required. Adapter pattern lets different classes work together that could not otherwise due to the different interface of each class.

Understanding Adapter pattern is not that difficult because it works same as we see an adapter in the real world. The simplest example is AC power adapter which we use for cell-phone, laptop chargers. Electricity at home socket is 220 volts (or 110 volts) but our cell phone needs 5-12 volts so we need an adapter which should convert the power to required range.

Adapter in Programming


Let's see a real world example for Adapter pattern. Information sharing system's team is working on a system which uses social networks sites to share the content. The team has designed an interface which is implemented by Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin classes. The system is using this interface to switch between these sites and share the content. Developers have to spend a lot of time in implementing these network site's public APIs in these classes and make system bug free and tested.


Here is code implementation of the system.
public interface ISocialNetworks
{
    bool Login(string username, string password);
    bool Share(string content);
}

public class Facebook: ISocialNetworks
{    
    public bool Login(string username, string password)
    {
       //Login Using Facebook API
    }

    public bool Share(string content)
    {
       //Share Using Facebook API
    }
}

public class Twitter: ISocialNetworks
{    
    public bool Login(string username, string password)
    {
       //Login Using Twitter API
    }

    public bool Share(string content)
    {
       //Share Using Twitter API
    }
}

//similarly for Linkedin


Everything was working fine until client wanted Google+ also in the list and team know to implement the same interface you have to understand APIs and have to put a huge effort in implementations. But you found that Google+ has already developed a library so you downloaded that library and try to integrate into your system.


There is a little problem Google+ developers have implemented their own interface which is not compatible with our information sharing system. Here is the code:
public interface IGoogleSocialNetworks
{
    bool Authenticate(string username, string password);
    bool Post(string content);
}

public class GooglePlus: IGoogleSocialNetworks
{    
    public bool Authenticate(string username, string password)
    {
       //Login Using Google API
    }

    public bool Post(string content)
    {
       //Share Using Google API
    }
}


Now here comes the adapter which will convert interface of Google+ library to the interface of desired system interface i.e, ISocialNetworks. Let's see its code implementation
public class GoogleNetworksAdapter: ISocialNetworks
{
    GooglePlus GoogleLibrary;

    public void GoogleNetworksAdapter (GooglePlus googleLibrary)
    {
       this.GoogleLibrary = googleLibrary;
    }

    public bool Login(string username, string password)
    {
       GoogleLibrary.Authenticate(username, password);
    }

    public bool Share(string content)
    {
       GoogleLibrary.Post(content);
    }
}

Let see design diagram after implementing adapter pattern



Now since Google+ adapter has the same interface as our other Social Networks i.e, ISocialNetworks so it can be use in system easily. Here is how client uses the adapter:
  1. Client make a request to Adapter class (GoogleAdapter) for a method of target interface (ISocialNetworks) e.g, Login
  2. Adapter class translate that request to adapted object method (IGoogleSocialNetwoks) e,g, Authenticate and return response
  3. Client receive the response without realizing that Adapter converted its request to another form.

Here is the class diagram of Adapter Pattern


Adapter pattern uses other good practices of Object Oriented for example object composition in Adapter class to wrap adapted functionalities in target interface. Another advantage of using this object composition is that this adapter can be used with any child class that inherits this Adapted class.


Special Scenario

We have seen a simple example in which all the methods of target interface were available in adapted class. What if there is a method in target interface which is not available in adapted class? In that case adapter pattern is not perfect to use because we have to throw a NotImplementedException. So the client will have to watch out for possible exceptions from the adapter class. The Adapter class should be well documented to reduce the chance of leaving unhandled exception at the client end.


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Saturday, January 30, 2016

Decorator Design Pattern - Decorating Objects

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Decorator Pattern is a design Pattern that allows to dynamically add behavior to an existing individual object without making any code changes to the underlying classes. It is a flexible replacement to sub-classing for extending functionality to an object.

If you think inheritance is everything than decorator pattern helps you to learn the power of extension at run-time instead of compile-time. Let's try to learn and implement decorator pattern on a problem.


Decorator Pattern in Pizza Corner Problem

Pizza Corner growing restaurant chain around. Because they have grown, they’re trying to update their ordering systems to match their Pizza offerings. While starting their business they created their classes like this.

Pizza Corner order system classes
Pizza Corner order system's classes design

Other than regular Pizza, you can ask for several pizza topping options like Bacon, Black olives, Chicken, Extra cheese, Mushrooms, Onions, Sausage and much more. Pizza Corner charges for each of these topping, so they want to add these into their system.


First Implementation

First implementation of adding new abilities in system team created a child class for each pizza with each topping option. So first implementation looks like.

If your first thought was also to use inheritance for this problem then you are incorrect. What if Pizza Corner started offering more toppings or added new pizza type you have to add all combination of classes in a system which will become hard to manage.

Alternate Solution

Developer team realize that this subclassed solution is not going to work and its actually a bad design so they started redesigning the system. Now they created instance variables for each topping option in the base class. So each child class can set options which it required.

Pizza Corner System with Instance variable

This solution reduced the size of classes but there is another problem if you have noticed now all the classes has all the topping options so Vegie can also have chicken topping which should not be allowed. Additionally, this design also violate the basic design principle of "Classes should be open
for an extension, but closed for modification." As whenever a new topping option will be introduced we need to modify our base class which is not correct.

Decorator Pattern


As we have seen different approaches for our problem at Pizza Corner which have not work out very well. Let's implement Decorator Pattern in this problem.


For decorator pattern we take our pizza type object and than decorate it with different toppings. Lets say we got an order for BBQChicken with Onions, ExtraCheese and Mushrooms.

  1. First take a BBQChicken object
  2. Decorate it with Onions
  3. Decorate it with ExtraCheese
  4. Decorate it with Mushrooms
  5. Call the cost() method and delegation will add cost of all topping and pizza

Pizza Corner System - Decorator Pattern
Decorator Pattern - Decorating Objects

Here are some key points for decorator pattern implementations:


  • Decorators object should have the same base type as the objects they are decorating.
  • We can use more than one decorators to wrap an object.
  • Given that the decorator has the same supertype as the object it decorates, we can pass around a decorated object in place of the original (wrapped) object.
  • The decorator object apply its own behavior either after or/and before delegating to the object it decorates.
  • We can decorate objects dynamically at runtime with as many decorator as we required.

Code Implementation

Here is a diagram which shows the design of decorator pattern. We have to implement this design for our system. I am going to implement it in C# language.

Decorator Pattern
Decorator Pattern - Image from Head First Design Pattern

Our base class of Pizza which will be inherited by all pizza types and toppings.

public abstract class Pizza 
{
  String description = “Unknown Pizza”;
  public String getDescription() 
  {
    return description;
  }

  public abstract double cost();
}

Here are our concrete components classes for each pizza type. Each concrete components will set is own definition for cost method and set description.

public class BBQChicken : Pizza
{
  public BBQChicken() 
  {
    description = “BBQ Chicken”; 
  }
  public double cost() 
  {
    return 800; //rupees
  }
}

public class HotChickenWings: Pizza
{
  public HotChickenWings () 
  {
    description = “Hot Chicken Wings”;
  }
  public double cost() 
  {
    return 750; //rupees
  }
}
public class Vegie : Pizza
{
  public Vegie() 
  {
    description = “Vegetable Pizza”; 
  }
  public double cost() 
  {
    return 650; //rupees
  }
}

Let implement topping decorator abstract class:

public abstract class ToppingDecorator : Pizza 
{
  public abstract String getDescription();
}

We have implemented our base topping decorator class, lets implement decorator class.

public class Onions : ToppingDecorator // ToppingDecorator inherit Pizza 
{
  Pizza pizza;
  public Onions(Pizza pizza) 
  {
    this.pizza = pizza;
  }
  public String getDescription() 
  {
    return pizza.getDescription() + “, Onions”;
  }
  public double cost() 
  {
    return 120 + pizza.cost();
  }
}
public class ExtraCheese : ToppingDecorator // ToppingDecorator inherit Pizza 
{
  Pizza pizza;
  public ExtraCheese(Pizza pizza) 
  {
    this.pizza = pizza;
  }
  public String getDescription() 
  {
    return pizza.getDescription() + “, ExtraCheese”;
  }
  public double cost() 
  {
    return 160 + pizza.cost();  
  }
}
// similarly implement all toppings

Serve Some Pizzas


As we have implemented decorator pattern for Pizza Corner lets serve some order of pizza and see how its going to work.

public class PizzaCorner
{
  public static void Main(String[] args)
  {

    Pizza pizza = new HotChickenWings();
    System.Console.WriteLine(pizza.getDescription() + “ Rs.” +pizza.cost());

    Pizza pizza2 = new BBQChicken();
    pizza2 = new Onions(pizza2);
    pizza2 = new ExtraCheese(pizza2);
    pizza2= new Mushrooms(pizza2);
    // cost triggering order is Mushrooms, ExtraCheese, Onions, BBQChicken
    System.Console.WriteLine(pizza2.getDescription()+ “ Rs” +pizza2.cost());
  }
}

Decorator Pattern in JavaScript

Let's implement the decorator pattern in JavaScript. Let's say a Cell Phone company implementing their system. They create Cell Phone with different features e.g, Camera, Wifi, 3G, Bluetooth etc each of these features has some cost. They want to implement their system in a way they don't need to change the whole system when they introduce a new phone model with some feature. Here we going to use decorator pattern in which we take base Cell Phone object and decorate it with Feature decorator.

//object we're going to decorate
function CellPhone() {
    this.cost = function () { return 397; };
    this.screenSize = function () { return 5; };
}
/*Decorator 1*/
function Camera(cellPhone) {
    var price = cellPhone.cost();
    cellPhone.cost = function() {
        return price + 45;
    }
}
 /*Decorator 2*/
function Wifi(cellPhone){
   //get cell phone current price
   var price = cellPhone.cost();
    
   //update cell phone cost() function
   //and add feature price to current price
   cellPhone.cost = function(){
     return  price + 90;
  };
}

 /*Decorator 3*/
function threeG(cellPhone){
   var price = cellPhone.cost();
   cellPhone.cost = function(){
     return  price + 90;
  };
}

/*Decorator 4*/
function Bluetooth(cellPhone){
   var price = cellPhone.cost();
   cellPhone.cost = function(){
     return  price + 50;
  };
}

Company introduced a new model with Camera, Wifi and bluetooth. Lets see how to decorate the object:

var newModelCellPhone = new CellPhone();
Camera(newModelCellPhone);
Wifi(newModelCellPhone);
Bluetooth(newModelCellPhone);
console.log(newModelCellPhone.cost());
console.log(newModelCellPhone.screenSize());

Conclusion

We have implemented Decorator Design Pattern which add behavior to an existing object without making any code changes to the underlying classes as you notice its follow the design principle of "Open for an extension, closed for the modification" Now if Pizza Corner add any new Topping serving the need to extend the system by implementing new decorator class and no need to existing system. If you have any question or feedback please post in comments.

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Saturday, April 25, 2015

What Google says about your favorite Programming Language / Framework

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Google autocomplete suggestion give you popular searches for your typed word. Here I search about different programming languages and frameworks. See what Google suggested me.

Some suggestion are really nice but some are.... see.

Why your favorite Programming Language is so ...

Java is so:


C language is:



C++ is hard:


Objective C is not that ugly:


Here is C#:


My favorite JavaScript is so:


PHP is so:


Google suggest Python is :


Visual Basic is so:


AngularJs is so:


ActionScript is so:

ASP.NET is so:

Clojure is so:

Is coffeescript better than JavaScript?


Delphi is so:

Fortran is faster:

For Google F# is still relate music:

Haskell is so:


jQuery is so:

Matlab is expensive:


Perl is so:


Ruby is so bossy:


Scala is so:


YII is so:


Life insurance policy, bank loans, software, microsoft, facebook,mortgage,policy,